In 1992, Senators Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn passed legislation creating the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program to secure, destroy, or remove poorly secured WMD related materials from the former Soviet Union, especially nuclear ones in Russia. On May 11, 2001, neocon John Bolton was made Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security which oversaw this effort. Under his leadership in the two years after 9/11, less nuclear materials were secured than in the two years before 9/11. Efforts to transfer weapons grade plutonium to this country to keep it out of the hands of terrorists were delayed for over a year because Bolton was squabbling with the Russians about who should pay liability insurance on the shipments. This issue was only resolved after Bolton’s departure to become UN Ambassador in August 2005.